Summary: Sin has consequences, and Adam’s rebellion caused the corruption of both himself and his descendants. Auspiciously, God provides humanity with a means to escape this detrimental condition, through the sacrificial atonement of Jesus.
The doctrine of original sin is not without controversy, as Christian theologians differ in their attempts to articulate the definition of “original sin,” while simultaneously explaining how the sin of Adam (cf., Genesis 3) results in the corruption of all humanity (cf., Romans 5; 1 Corinthians 15:22; Psalm 51:5; Ephesians 2:3).1 However, Christians have historically appealed to three theories that each correspond with Scripture, and prove adequate in explaining the corruption of humanity. The first theory is federal headship (or representative headship), which acknowledges Adam as a representative of the entire human race. Just as the president represents the citizens of the United States—with the inhabitants enduring the consequences of his decisions (positive and negative)—accordingly, Adam represented all of humanity. In choosing to rebel against God, every person Adam represents inherently become God’s enemy. Similarly, Jesus serves as a representative in His atoning sacrifice, reconciling all those He represents (i.e., those who trust Him) with the Father (cf., 1 Corinthians 15:19, 21-22).
The second explanation is the seminal identity (or realistic union) theory, which argues that humanity was ontologically present during Adam’s rebellion, genetically residing within Adam’s body. This theory receives foundation from Hebrews 7:9-10, which states that Levi paid tithes to Melchizedek since he was ontologically present in Abraham. While those born in Adam are integrally guilty of sin, those who have been born of the Spirit (cf., John 3:5) are intrinsically righteous by virtue of their union with Jesus (cf., Romans 6:3-4; Galatians 2:19-20; Ephesians 2:6-7). Finally, traducianism contends that Adam’s descendants were ontologically present during his rebellion, and as genetic and spiritual reproductions, humanity inherited his fallen nature. Dr. Clay Jones does a masterful job in summarizing this view, stating, “We are all organically, spiritually, psychically the same as Adam, and if we live long enough, we will ratify our union with him through our own sinful choices.”2
While each of these answers adequately addresses the issue of original sin, some are more psychologically appealing and intellectually satisfying than others. Nevertheless, none of these explanations is mutually exclusive, and it remains possible that all three are collectively true. In any event, it is clear that sin has consequences, and Adam’s rebellion caused the corruption of both himself and his descendants. However, God provides humanity with a means to escape this detrimental condition, through the sacrificial atonement of Jesus.